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In the university cafeteria, you set your lunch tray down at a table, grab a chair, join chaptrr group of your classmates, and hear the start узнать больше здесь two discussions.

Perhaps the speakers had firsthand experience, talked to experts, conducted online research, or saw news microsoft word 2013 chapter 2 quizlet free on TV. Microsoft word 2013 chapter 2 quizlet free response, two conversations erupt. Going to Disney World is one of my favourite childhood memories. As your classmates at the lunch table discuss what they know or believe, the two topics converge.

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Beliebers join together claiming they want romance, except what they really want is a safe place to explore the confusion of teenage sexual feelings. Disney World is a place where families free to see what chapteer would microsoft word 2013 chapter 2 quizlet free like to live inside a cartoon. But you are thinking of Justin Bieber and Disney Quizzlet.

You have a new perspective on human behaviour and a list of questions that you want answered. That is the purpose of sociological research—to investigate and provide insights into how human societies function. They also rely on a theoretical foundation that provides an interpretive perspective through which they can make sense of scientific results. A truly scientific sociological study of the social situations up for discussion in the cafeteria would involve these prescribed chapteg microsoft word 2013 chapter 2 quizlet free a specific question, gathering information and resources through observation, forming a hypothesis, qiizlet the hypothesis in a worv manner, analyzing and drawing conclusions from the data, publishing the results, and anticipating further development when future researchers respond to and retest findings.

You might assume that your observations and insights are valuable and accurate. To mediate these concerns, sociologists rely on systematic research processes. When sociologists apply the sociological perspective and begin to ask questions, no topic is off limits. Every aspect of human behaviour is a source of possible investigation. Sociologists question the world that humans have created and live in.

They notice patterns of behaviour as people move through that world. Using sociological methods and systematic research within the framework of the scientific method and a scholarly interpretive perspective, sociologists have discovered workplace patterns that have transformed industries, family patterns that have enlightened parents, and education patterns that have нажмите чтобы прочитать больше structural changes in classrooms.

The students at that university МРАК!!! microsoft word 2016 with crack free поюзаем) discussion put forth a few loosely stated opinions. If the human behaviours around those claims were tested systematically, a student could write a report and offer the findings to fellow sociologists and the world in general. The new perspective could mixrosoft people understand themselves and their neighbours and help people make better decisions about microsoft word 2013 chapter 2 quizlet free lives.

Sociologists often begin the research process by asking a question about how or why things happen in this world. It might be a unique question about a new trend or an old question about a common aspect of life.

Once a question is formed, a sociologist proceeds through an in-depth process to answer it. In deciding how to design that process, the researcher may adopt a positivist approach or an interpretive approach. The following sections describe these approaches to knowledge. Sociologists make use of tried-and-true methods of research, such as experiments, surveys, field research, and textual analysis.

But humans and their social interactions are so diverse that they can microsofg impossible to chart or explain. It might seem that science is about discoveries microsoft word 2013 chapter 2 quizlet free chemical reactions or about proving ideas right 2031 wrong rather microsoft word 2013 chapter 2 quizlet free about exploring the nuances of human behaviour. However, this is exactly why scientific models qujzlet for studying human behaviour.

A scientific process of research establishes parameters that help make sure results are objective and accurate. Scientific methods provide limitations and boundaries перейти на источник focus a study and organize its results. This is the case for both positivist or quantitative methodologies and interpretive or qualitative methodologies. The scientific cnapter involves developing and testing theories about the world based on empirical evidence.

It is defined by its commitment to systematic observation of the empirical world and strives to be objective, critical, skeptical, and logical. It involves a series of prescribed steps that have been established over centuries of scholarship.

But just because wrd studies use scientific methods does not make the results less human. Sociological topics are not reduced to right or wrong facts. In this field, results chapyer studies tend to provide people with access to knowledge they did not have before—knowledge of other cultures, knowledge of rituals and beliefs, knowledge of trends and attitudes. Reliability increases worx likelihood that what is true of one person will be true of all people in a group.

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They deliberately apply scientific logic and objectivity. They are interested in but not attached to the results. Their research work is independent of their own political or social beliefs. This does not mean researchers are not critical. Nor does it mean fre do not have their own personalities, complete mmicrosoft preferences and opinions. But sociologists deliberately use the scientific method to maintain as much objectivity, focus, and consistency as possible in a particular study.

With its systematic approach, the scientific method quizet proven useful in shaping sociological studies. The scientific method provides a systematic, organized series of steps that help ensure objectivity and consistency in exploring a social problem. They provide the means for accuracy, reliability, and validity.

In the end, the scientific method provides a shared basis for discussion and analysis Merton Typically, the scientific method starts with these steps—1 ask a question, 2 research existing sources, 3 formulate a hypothesis—described below. The microsofy step of the scientific method is to ask a question, describe a problem, and identify the specific area of interest.

The topic should be narrow enough to study within a geography and timeframe. The microsoft word 2013 chapter 2 quizlet free should also be broad enough to have universal frse. That said, happiness and hygiene are worthy microsoft word 2013 chapter 2 quizlet free to study. Sociologists do not rule out any трудно microsoft office 2010 kms client setup keys free утешение!, but would strive to frame these questions in better research terms.

That is why sociologists are careful to define their terms. The concept is translated into an observable variablea measure that has different values.

The operational definition identifies an observable condition of the concept. By operationalizing a variable of the concept, all researchers can collect data in a systematic or replicable manner. The operational definition must be valid in the sense that it is an appropriate and meaningful measure of the concept being studied. It must also be reliable, meaning that results will be close to uniform quizzlet tested увидеть больше more than one wird.

But these driving behaviours could be interpreted differently by different узнать больше and could be difficult to measure. The next step researchers undertake is to conduct background research through a literature reviewwhich is a review of any existing similar or related studies. Источник статьи visit to the library and a thorough online search will uncover existing research about the topic of study. This step helps researchers gain ссылка broad understanding of work previously conducted on the topic at hand and enables them to position their own research to build on prior knowledge.

It allows them to sharpen the focus sony vegas pro 11 portable free their research question and avoid duplicating previous research. Researchers—including student researchers—are responsible for correctly citing existing sources they use in a study or that inform their work.

While it is fine to build on previously published material as long as it enhances a unique viewpointit must be referenced properly and never plagiarized. To study hygiene and its value in a particular society, a researcher might sort through existing research and unearth studies about childrearing, vanity, obsessive-compulsive behaviours, and cultural attitudes toward beauty. A hypothesis quilet an assumption about how two or dord variables microsoft word 2013 chapter 2 quizlet free related; it makes a conjectural statement about the relationship between those variables.

The hypothesis formulates this guess in the form of a testable proposition. However, how the hypothesis is handled differs between the positivist and interpretive approaches. Positivist methodologies are often referred microsoft word 2013 chapter 2 quizlet free as hypothetico-deductive methodologies.

A hypothesis is derived from a theoretical proposition. On the basis of the hypothesis a перейти на страницу or generalization is logically deduced.

In positivist sociology, the hypothesis predicts how one form of human behaviour influences another. Successful quizlst will determine the adequacy of the hypothesis and thereby test the theoretical proposition. Variables are examined to see if there is a correlation between them. When a change in one variable coincides with a change in another variable there is a correlation.

This does not necessarily indicate that changes in one главное windows 10 home single language activation key 2019 free думаю causes a change in another variable, however, just that they are associated.

A key distinction here is between independent and dependent variables. In research, independent variables are the cause of the change. The dependent variable wod the effector thing that is changed. For example, in a basic study, the researcher would establish one form of human behaviour as the independent variable and observe the influence it has on a dependent variable.

 
 

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Safety starts with understanding how developers collect and share your data. Data privacy and security practices may vary based on your use, region, and age. The developer provided this information and may update it over time. This app may share these data types with third parties Location, Personal info and 3 others. This app may collect these data types Location, Personal info and 4 others. Data is encrypted in transit. You can request that data be deleted. Dear developers, bad idea to charge for the learning function.

The test and the styling features – I get it, but for the learning sessions? It’s the simplest code, barley need maintenance if not at all. Your app’s UI is really good, you shouldn’t limit the learning sessions. I believe that students is your target audience and it’s not affordable. Really disappointing. I love this app for studying Korean. Excellent interface, great language integration. I wish it had more flexibility, however. For example, I learn my sets in units, and find that studying them in different combinations improves my retention and ability to distinguish between similar words from different units.

However, to do this, I need to create an entirely new set combining prior sets. It would be nice to implement a learn feature that allows you to simply select other sets temporarily. I absolutely love this app!! It is so easy to study with, and I always do exceptionally well on my vocab quizzes and tests after studying with Quizlet. There are so many options to study with like, flashcards, learn which takes you through the words and makes sure you understand them , write, and it makes a very nice test for you at the end.

It also has matching games, and quick review games to keep practicing. Reliability increases the likelihood that what is true of one person will be true of all people in a group. Researchers also strive for validity how well the study measures what it was designed to measure. Returning to the Disney World topic, reliability of a study would reflect how well the resulting experience represents the average experience of theme park-goers.

In general, sociologists tackle questions about the role of social characteristics in outcomes. For example, how do different communities fare in terms of psychological well-being, community cohesiveness, range of vocation, wealth, crime rates, and so on?

Are communities functioning smoothly? Sociologists look between the cracks to discover obstacles to meeting basic human needs. They might study environmental influences and patterns of behaviour that lead to crime, substance abuse, divorce, poverty, unplanned pregnancies, or illness. And, because sociological studies are not all focused on problematic behaviours or challenging situations, researchers might study vacation trends, healthy eating habits, neighbourhood organizations, higher education patterns, games, parks, and exercise habits.

Sociologists can use the scientific method not only to collect but to interpret and analyze the data. They deliberately apply scientific logic and objectivity. They are interested in but not attached to the results. Their research work is independent of their own political or social beliefs. This does not mean researchers are not critical. Nor does it mean they do not have their own personalities, complete with preferences and opinions. But sociologists deliberately use the scientific method to maintain as much objectivity, focus, and consistency as possible in a particular study.

With its systematic approach, the scientific method has proven useful in shaping sociological studies. The scientific method provides a systematic, organized series of steps that help ensure objectivity and consistency in exploring a social problem. They provide the means for accuracy, reliability, and validity. In the end, the scientific method provides a shared basis for discussion and analysis Merton Typically, the scientific method starts with these steps—1 ask a question, 2 research existing sources, 3 formulate a hypothesis—described below.

The first step of the scientific method is to ask a question, describe a problem, and identify the specific area of interest. The topic should be narrow enough to study within a geography and timeframe.

The question should also be broad enough to have universal merit. That said, happiness and hygiene are worthy topics to study. Sociologists do not rule out any topic, but would strive to frame these questions in better research terms. That is why sociologists are careful to define their terms. The concept is translated into an observable variable , a measure that has different values. The operational definition identifies an observable condition of the concept. By operationalizing a variable of the concept, all researchers can collect data in a systematic or replicable manner.

The operational definition must be valid in the sense that it is an appropriate and meaningful measure of the concept being studied. It must also be reliable, meaning that results will be close to uniform when tested on more than one person.

But these driving behaviours could be interpreted differently by different researchers and could be difficult to measure. The next step researchers undertake is to conduct background research through a literature review , which is a review of any existing similar or related studies. A visit to the library and a thorough online search will uncover existing research about the topic of study.

This step helps researchers gain a broad understanding of work previously conducted on the topic at hand and enables them to position their own research to build on prior knowledge. It allows them to sharpen the focus of their research question and avoid duplicating previous research. Researchers—including student researchers—are responsible for correctly citing existing sources they use in a study or that inform their work. While it is fine to build on previously published material as long as it enhances a unique viewpoint , it must be referenced properly and never plagiarized.

To study hygiene and its value in a particular society, a researcher might sort through existing research and unearth studies about childrearing, vanity, obsessive-compulsive behaviours, and cultural attitudes toward beauty. A hypothesis is an assumption about how two or more variables are related; it makes a conjectural statement about the relationship between those variables.

The hypothesis formulates this guess in the form of a testable proposition. However, how the hypothesis is handled differs between the positivist and interpretive approaches. Positivist methodologies are often referred to as hypothetico-deductive methodologies.

A hypothesis is derived from a theoretical proposition. On the basis of the hypothesis a prediction or generalization is logically deduced. In positivist sociology, the hypothesis predicts how one form of human behaviour influences another. Successful prediction will determine the adequacy of the hypothesis and thereby test the theoretical proposition. Variables are examined to see if there is a correlation between them. When a change in one variable coincides with a change in another variable there is a correlation.

This does not necessarily indicate that changes in one variable causes a change in another variable, however, just that they are associated. A key distinction here is between independent and dependent variables. In research, independent variables are the cause of the change. The dependent variable is the effect , or thing that is changed. For example, in a basic study, the researcher would establish one form of human behaviour as the independent variable and observe the influence it has on a dependent variable.

How does gender the independent variable affect rate of income the dependent variable? How is social class the dependent variable affected by level of education the independent variable? For it to become possible to speak about causation, three criteria must be satisfied:. Table 2. Examples of Dependent and Independent Variables Typically, the independent variable causes the dependent variable to change in some way. As the chart shows, an independent variable is the one that causes a dependent variable to change.

For example, a researcher might hypothesize that teaching children proper hygiene the independent variable will boost their sense of self-esteem the dependent variable. Of course, this hypothesis can also work the other way around.

Identifying the independent and dependent variables is very important. As the hygiene example shows, simply identifying two topics, or variables, is not enough: Their prospective relationship must be part of the hypothesis.

Sociologists analyze general patterns in response to a study, but they are equally interested in exceptions to patterns. In a study of education, a researcher might predict that high school dropouts have a hard time finding a rewarding career. While it has become at least a cultural assumption that the higher the education, the higher the salary and degree of career happiness, there are certainly exceptions. People with little education have had stunning careers, and people with advanced degrees have had trouble finding work.

A sociologist prepares a hypothesis knowing that results will vary. While many sociologists rely on the positivist hypothetico-deductive method in their research, others operate from an interpretive approach. While systematic, this approach does not follow the hypothesis-testing model that seeks to make generalizable predictions from quantitative variables. Instead, an interpretive framework seeks to understand social worlds from the point of view of participants, leading to in-depth knowledge.

Interpretive research is generally more descriptive or narrative in its findings. It can begin from a deductive approach, by deriving a hypothesis from theory and then seeking to confirm it through methodologies like in-depth interviews.

However, it is ideally suited to an inductive approach in which the hypothesis emerges only after a substantial period of direct observation or interaction with subjects. This type of approach is exploratory in that the researcher also learns as he or she proceeds, sometimes adjusting the research methods or processes midway to respond to new insights and findings as they evolve.

These research methods are discussed below. Sociologists examine the world, see a problem or interesting pattern, and set out to study it. They use research methods to design a study—perhaps a positivist, quantitative method for conducting research and obtaining data, or perhaps an ethnographic study utilizing an interpretive framework.

Planning the research design is a key step in any sociological study. When entering a particular social environment, a researcher must be careful.

There are times to remain anonymous and times to be overt. There are times to conduct interviews and times to simply observe. Some participants need to be thoroughly informed; others should not know they are being observed.

In the s, leaders of a Chicago factory called Hawthorne Works commissioned a study to determine whether or not changing certain aspects of working conditions could increase or decrease worker productivity. Sociologists were surprised when the productivity of a test group increased when the lighting of their workspace was improved.

They were even more surprised when productivity improved when the lighting of the workspace was dimmed. In fact almost every change of independent variable—lighting, breaks, work hours—resulted in an improvement of productivity. But when the study was over, productivity dropped again. Why did this happen? In , Henry A. Landsberger analyzed the study results to answer this question. Worker behaviours were altered not by the lighting but by the study itself. From this, sociologists learned the importance of carefully planning their roles as part of their research design Franke and Kaul The Hawthorne effect is unavoidable in some research.

In many cases, sociologists have to make the purpose of the study known for ethical reasons. Subjects must be aware that they are being observed, and a certain amount of artificiality may result Sonnenfeld That option is not available to a researcher studying prison behaviours, early education, or the Ku Klux Klan.

Researchers cannot just stroll into prisons, kindergarten classrooms, or Ku Klux Klan meetings and unobtrusively observe behaviours. In situations like these, other methods are needed. All studies shape the research design, while research design simultaneously shapes the study.

Researchers choose methods that best suit their study topic and that fit with their overall goal for the research. Every research method comes with plusses and minuses, and the topic of study strongly influences which method or methods are put to use.

As a research method, a survey collects data from subjects who respond to a series of questions about behaviours and opinions, often in the form of a questionnaire. The survey is one of the most widely used positivist research methods.

The standard survey format allows individuals a level of anonymity in which they can express personal ideas. At some point or another, everyone responds to some type of survey. The Statistics Canada census is an excellent example of a large-scale survey intended to gather sociological data.

If yes, how many per month? Marketing polls help companies refine marketing goals and strategies; they are generally not conducted as part of a scientific study, meaning they are not designed to test a hypothesis or to contribute knowledge to the field of sociology. The results are not published in a refereed scholarly journal, where design, methodology, results, and analyses are vetted. Polls conducted by programs such as American Idol or Canadian Idol represent the opinions of fans but are not particularly scientific.

A good contrast to these are the BBM Ratings, which determine the popularity of radio and television programming in Canada through scientific market research. Sociologists conduct surveys under controlled conditions for specific purposes. Surveys gather different types of information from people. While surveys are not great at capturing the ways people really behave in social situations, they are a great method for discovering how people feel and think—or at least how they say they feel and think.

Surveys can track attitudes and opinions, political preferences, reported individual behaviours such as sleeping, driving, or texting habits , or factual information such as employment status, income, and education levels.

A survey targets a specific population , people who are the focus of a study, such as university athletes, international students, or teenagers living with type 1 juvenile-onset diabetes. Most researchers choose to survey a small sector of the population, or a sample : that is, a manageable number of subjects who represent a larger population. The success of a study depends on how well a population is represented by the sample. In a random sample , every person in a population has the same chance of being chosen for the study.

According to the laws of probability, random samples represent the population as a whole. For instance, an Ipsos Reid poll, if conducted as a nationwide random sampling, should be able to provide an accurate estimate of public opinion whether it contacts 2, or 10, people. However the validity of surveys can be threatened when part of the population is inadvertently excluded from the sample e.

After selecting subjects, the researcher develops a specific plan to ask questions and record responses. It is important to inform subjects of the nature and purpose of the study upfront. If they agree to participate, researchers thank subjects and offer them a chance to see the results of the study if they are interested.

The researcher presents the subjects with an instrument a means of gathering the information. A common instrument is a structured questionnaire, in which subjects answer a series of set questions. For some topics, the researcher might ask yes-or-no or multiple-choice questions, allowing subjects to choose possible responses to each question. This kind of quantitative data —research collected in numerical form that can be counted—is easy to tabulate.

This is also their chief drawback however: their artificiality. In real life, there are rarely any unambiguously yes-or-no answers. In those cases, the answers are subjective, varying from person to person. How do you plan to use your university education? Why do you follow Justin Bieber around the country and attend every concert? Those types of questions require short essay responses, and participants willing to take the time to write those answers will convey personal information about religious beliefs, political views, and morals.

Some topics that reflect internal thought are impossible to observe directly and are difficult to discuss honestly in a public forum. People are more likely to share honest answers if they can respond to questions anonymously. This type of information is qualitative data —results that are subjective and often based on what is seen in a natural setting.

Qualitative information is harder to organize and tabulate. The researcher will end up with a wide range of responses, some of which may be surprising. The benefit of written opinions, though, is the wealth of material that they provide. An interview is a one-on-one conversation between the researcher and the subject, and is a way of conducting surveys on a topic. Interviews are similar to the short answer questions on surveys in that the researcher asks subjects a series of questions.

However, participants are free to respond as they wish, without being limited by predetermined choices. In the back-and-forth conversation of an interview, a researcher can ask for clarification, spend more time on a subtopic, or ask additional questions. In an interview, a subject will ideally feel free to open up and answer questions that are often complex.

There are no right or wrong answers. The subject might not even know how to answer the questions honestly. A researcher needs to avoid steering or prompting the subject to respond in a specific way; otherwise, the results will prove to be unreliable. And, obviously, a sociological interview is not an interrogation.

If this, then that. When you test the theory, your results either prove or disprove your hypothesis. One way researchers test social theories is by conducting an experiment , meaning they investigate relationships to test a hypothesis—a scientific approach. There are two main types of experiments: lab-based experiments and natural or field experiments. In a lab setting, the research can be controlled so that perhaps more data can be recorded in a certain amount of time.

In a natural or field-based experiment, the generation of data cannot be controlled but the information might be considered more accurate since it was collected without interference or intervention by the researcher. As a research method, either type of sociological experiment is useful for testing if-then statements: if a particular thing happens, then another particular thing will result.

To set up a lab-based experiment, sociologists create artificial situations that allow them to manipulate variables. Classically, the sociologist selects a set of people with similar characteristics, such as age, class, race, or education. Those people are divided into two groups. One is the experimental group and the other is the control group. The experimental group is exposed to the independent variable s and the control group is not. This is similar to pharmaceutical drug trials in which the experimental group is given the test drug and the control group is given a placebo or sugar pill.

To test the benefits of tutoring, for example, the sociologist might expose the experimental group of students to tutoring while the control group does not receive tutoring.

Then both groups would be tested for differences in performance to see if tutoring had an effect on the experimental group of students. As you can imagine, in a case like this, the researcher would not want to jeopardize the accomplishments of either group of students, so the setting would be somewhat artificial. The test would not be for a grade reflected on their permanent record, for example.

The Stanford Prison Experiment is perhaps one of the most famous sociological experiments ever conducted. In , 24 healthy, middle-class male university students were selected to take part in a simulated jail environment to examine the effects of social setting and social roles on individual psychology and behaviour.

They were randomly divided into 12 guards and 12 prisoners. The prisoner subjects were arrested at home and transported blindfolded to the simulated prison in the basement of the psychology building on the campus of Stanford University.

Within a day of arriving the prisoners and the guards began to display signs of trauma and sadism respectively. After some prisoners revolted by blockading themselves in their cells, the guards resorted to using increasingly humiliating and degrading tactics to control the prisoners through psychological manipulation. The experiment had to be abandoned after only six days because the abuse had grown out of hand Haney, Banks, and Zimbardo While the insights into the social dynamics of authoritarianism it generated were fascinating, the Stanford Prison Experiment also serves as an example of the ethical issues that emerge when experimenting on human subjects.

A real-life example will help illustrate the experimental process in sociology. The income was 50 cents per dollar less for families who had incomes from other sources. Families earning over a certain income level did not receive mincome. Families that were already collecting welfare or unemployment insurance were also excluded.

The test families in Dauphin were compared with control groups in other rural Manitoba communities on a range of indicators such as number of hours worked per week, school performance, high school dropout rates, and hospital visits Forget A guaranteed annual income was seen at the time as a less costly, less bureaucratic public alternative for addressing poverty than the existing employment insurance and welfare programs.

Today it is an active proposal being considered in Switzerland Lowrey Intuitively, it seems logical that lack of income is the cause of poverty and poverty-related issues. One of the main concerns, however, was whether a guaranteed income would create a disincentive to work. The concept appears to challenge the principles of the Protestant work ethic see the discussion of Max Weber in Chapter 1.

The study did find very small decreases in hours worked per week: about 1 percent for men, 3 percent for wives, and 5 percent for unmarried women. Forget argues this was because the income provided an opportunity for people to spend more time with family and school, especially for young mothers and teenage girls.

There were also significant social benefits from the experiment, including better test scores in school, lower high school dropout rates, fewer visits to hospital, fewer accidents and injuries, and fewer mental health issues. Ironically, due to lack of guaranteed funding and lack of political interest by the late s , the data and results of the study were not analyzed or published until The data were archived and sat gathering dust in boxes.

The mincome experiment demonstrated the benefits that even a modest guaranteed annual income supplement could have on health and social outcomes in communities.

People seem to live healthier lives and get a better education when they do not need to worry about poverty. In her summary of the research, Forget notes that the impact of the income supplement was surprisingly large given that at any one time only about a third of the families were receiving the income and, for some families, the income amount would have been very small.

The income benefit was largest for low-income working families but the research showed that the entire community profited. The improvement in overall health outcomes for the community suggest that a guaranteed income would also result in savings for the public health system. The work of sociology rarely happens in limited, confined spaces. Sociologists seldom study subjects in their own offices or laboratories.

Rather, sociologists go out into the world. They meet subjects where they live, work, and play. Field research refers to gathering primary data from a natural environment without doing a lab experiment or a survey. It is a research method suited to an interpretive approach rather than to positivist approaches. To conduct field research, the sociologist must be willing to step into new environments and observe, participate, or experience those worlds.

In fieldwork, the sociologists, rather than the subjects, are the ones out of their element. The researcher interacts with or observes a person or people, gathering data along the way. Fieldwork is optimal for observing how people behave. It is less useful, however, for developing causal explanations of why they behave that way. From the small size of the groups studied in fieldwork, it is difficult to make predictions or generalizations to a larger population.

Similarly, there are difficulties in gaining an objective distance from research subjects. It is difficult to know whether another researcher would see the same things or record the same data. We will look at three types of field research: participant observation, ethnography, and the case study. Choosing a research methodology depends on a number of factors, including the purpose of the research and the audience for whom the research is intended.

The most reliable data would come from an experimental or quasi-experimental research model in which a control group can be compared with an experimental group using quantitative measures. This approach has been used by researchers studying InSite in Vancouver Marshall et al. InSite is a supervised safe-injection site where heroin addicts and other intravenous drug users can go to inject drugs in a safe, clean environment. Clean needles are provided and health care professionals are on hand to intervene in the case of overdose or other medical emergency.

It is a controversial program both because heroin use is against the law the facility operates through a federal ministerial exemption and because the heroin users are not obliged to quit using or seek therapy. To assess the effectiveness of the program, researchers compared the risky usage of drugs in populations before and after the opening of the facility and geographically near and distant to the facility.

The results from the studies have shown that InSite has reduced both deaths from overdose and risky behaviours, such as the sharing of needles, without increasing the levels of crime associated with drug use and addiction. On the other hand, if the research question is more exploratory for example, trying to discern the reasons why individuals in the crack smoking subculture engage in the risky activity of sharing pipes , the more nuanced approach of fieldwork is more appropriate.

The research would need to focus on the subcultural context, rituals, and meaning of sharing pipes, and why these phenomena override known health concerns. Graduate student Andrew Ivsins at the University of Victoria studied the practice of sharing pipes among 13 habitual users of crack cocaine in Victoria, B. Ivsins He met crack smokers in their typical setting downtown and used an unstructured interview method to try to draw out the informal norms that lead to sharing pipes.

One factor he discovered was the bond that formed between friends or intimate partners when they shared a pipe. He also discovered that there was an elaborate subcultural etiquette of pipe use that revolved around the benefit of getting the crack resin smokers left behind. Both of these motives tended to outweigh the recognized health risks of sharing pipes such as hepatitis in the decision making of the users.

This type of research was valuable in illuminating the unknown subcultural norms of crack use that could still come into play in a harm reduction strategy such as distributing safe crack kits to addicts. Every day for two weeks, he pretended to work there. His main purpose was simply to see if anyone would notice him or challenge his presence. No one did. The receptionist greeted him. The employees smiled and said good morning.

Rothman was accepted as part of the team. He even went so far as to claim a desk, inform the receptionist of his whereabouts, and attend a meeting. Later, he was discredited for allegedly fabricating some details of the story and The New Yorker issued an apology. This method lets researchers study a naturally occurring social activity without imposing artificial or intrusive research devices, like fixed questionnaire questions, onto the situation.

A researcher might go to great lengths to get a firsthand look into a trend, institution, or behaviour. A researcher might work as a waitress in a diner, or live as a homeless person for several weeks, or ride along with police officers as they patrol their regular beat.

Often, these researchers try to blend in seamlessly with the population they study, and they may not disclose their true identity or purpose if they feel it would compromise the results of their research. Field researchers simply want to observe and learn. In such a setting, the researcher will be alert and open minded to whatever happens, recording all observations accurately. Soon, as patterns emerge, questions will become more specific, observations will lead to hypotheses, and hypotheses will guide the researcher in shaping data into results.

In a study of small-town America conducted by sociological researchers John S. Lynd and Helen Merrell Lynd, the team altered their purpose as they gathered data. They initially planned to focus their study on the role of religion in American towns. As they gathered observations, they realized that the effect of industrialization and urbanization was the more relevant topic of this social group.

The Lynds did not change their methods, but they revised their purpose. The Lynds were upfront about their mission. The townspeople of Muncie, Indiana, knew why the researchers were in their midst. But some sociologists prefer not to alert people to their presence. Becoming an inside member of a group, organization, or subculture takes time and effort. Researchers must pretend to be something they are not. The process could involve role playing, making contacts, networking, or applying for a job.

Once inside a group, some researchers spend months or even years pretending to be one of the people they are observing. However, as observers, they cannot get too involved. They must keep their purpose in mind and apply the sociological perspective.

That way, they illuminate social patterns that are often unrecognized. Because information gathered during participant observation is mostly qualitative, rather than quantitative, the end results are often descriptive or interpretive. The researcher might present findings in an article or book, describing what he or she witnessed and experienced.

This type of research is what journalist Barbara Ehrenreich conducted for her book Nickel and Dimed. One day over lunch with her editor, as the story goes, Ehrenreich mentioned an idea. How can people exist on minimum-wage work? How do low-income workers get by? Someone should do a study. That is how Ehrenreich found herself joining the ranks of the low-wage service sector. For several months, she left her comfortable home and lived and worked among people who lacked, for the most part, higher education and marketable job skills.

Undercover, she applied for and worked minimum wage jobs as a waitress, a cleaning woman, a nursing home aide, and a retail chain employee. During her participant observation, she used only her income from those jobs to pay for food, clothing, transportation, and shelter. She also experienced and observed attitudes many middle- and upper-class people never think about. She witnessed firsthand the treatment of service work employees.

She saw the extreme measures people take to make ends meet and to survive. She described fellow employees who held two or three jobs, worked seven days a week, lived in cars, could not pay to treat chronic health conditions, got randomly fired, submitted to drug tests, and moved in and out of homeless shelters.

She brought aspects of that life to light, describing difficult working conditions and the poor treatment that low-wage workers suffer. Ethnography is the extended observation of the social perspective and cultural values of an entire social setting. Researchers seek to immerse themselves in the life of a bounded group, by living and working among them. Often ethnography involves participant observation, but the focus is the systematic observation of an entire community.

The heart of an ethnographic study focuses on how subjects view their own social standing and how they understand themselves in relation to a community. An ethnographic study might observe, for example, a small Newfoundland fishing town, an Inuit community, a village in Thailand, a Buddhist monastery, a private boarding school, or Disney World.

 

Microsoft word 2013 chapter 2 quizlet free. Microsoft Office Specialist Program

 

Answer: Scroll. Answer: scroll. Which of the following wildcard search criteria would you use? Answer: Find and Replace. Answer: Go To. In order to select text spread throughout a document, which key do you use? Answer: cut. Answer: copy. Answer: Paste. Answer: Ctrl. Which of the following types of information can you track in the Document Properties panel? Answer: Summary. Shared Flashcard Set. Title word chapter 2. Description MOS. Total Cards Subject Computer Science.

Level 12th Grade. Create your own flash cards! Sign up here. Supporting users have an ad free experience! Flashcard Library Browse Search Browse. Create Account. Additional Computer Science Flashcards. Term 1 You are looking for a document you created earlier in the week and cannot remember the name. Definition d Term 2 Which of the following are valid Document View options within Word?

Term 3 You are in the middle of editing a large document and only wish to edit text. Definition b Draft. Term 4 What is the default view in Word? Definition a Print Layout.

Term 5 Which view displays the text with a larger font and minimizes many tools in the Word window? Definition c Read Mode.

Term 6 Outside of the View tab, where else do you have access to Document View commands? Definition d Status bar. Term 7 Which of the following are valid options in the Show command group on the View tab? Definition a Rulers c Navigation Pane e Gridlines. Term 8 You are in the middle of creating a company newsletter and need to turn on Gridlines to align graphics.

Definition b Print Layout. Term 9 Rulers are measuring tools used to align text, graphics, and other elements within your document. Definition a right indent b first-line indent d hanging indent e left indent. Definition a Results. Term 11 In order to quickly navigate sections in a document, which tab in the Navigation Pane would you use? Definition b Headings. Term 12 Which tab in the Navigation Pane gives you a thumbnail graphical view of each page within the document?

Definition c Pages. Term 13 Which of the following locations provide access to Zoom options within Word? Definition a Status bar d View tab e Backstage Print command. You are in the middle of editing a large document and only wish to edit text. Which view hides charts, graphics, pictures, and other objects so you can focus on the text? Outside of the View tab, where else do you have access to Document View commands?

You are in the middle of creating a company newsletter and need to turn on Gridlines to align graphics. In order to see the Gridlines, you must be in what View? Which of the following are valid options in the Show command group on the View tab? Rulers are measuring tools used to align text, graphics, and other elements within your document. In order to perform this task, which of the following markers can you use? Which of the following locations provide access to Zoom options within Word?

Which of the following items will the Find command locate in the Results tab on the Navigation Pane? Related Topics. More Microsoft Word Quizzes. Microsoft word quiz: tools and functions trivia! This Microsoft tool is the go-to when one is learning how to use the keyboard. It helps one input data and images into tests. Do you know how to use the different features of this Questions: 10 Attempts: Last updated: Mar 22, Sample Question.

Microsoft Word is the easiest and quickest to learn how to operate. During computer training, one thing you should know by now is how to use it with speed. Do you believe you can tackle any quiz that comes to you on

 
 

Word Documents Quiz Questions – ProProfs Quiz.

 
 

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